Friday, November 30, 2012

Flora and the Hind

From the French story (The Hind of the Wood) of the enchanted hind who became a princess at night time. Stamped and tinted celluloid over a darkened metal background. Brass rim, steel back and wire shank.


Thursday, November 29, 2012


Two piece, heavily tinted button

Carmen is a French opéra comique by Georges Bizet. The libretto is by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on the novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée, first published in 1845, itself possibly influenced by the narrative poem The Gypsies (1824) by Alexander Pushkin. Mérimée had read the poem in Russian by 1840 and translated it into French in 1852.
The opera premiered at the Opéra-Comique of Paris on 3 March 1875, but its opening run was denounced by the majority of critics. It was almost withdrawn after its fourth or fifth performance, and although this was avoided, ultimately having 48 performances in its first run, it did little to bolster sagging receipts at the Opéra-Comique. Near the end of this run, the theatre was giving tickets away in order to stimulate attendance. Bizet died of a heart attack, aged 36, on 3 June 1875, never knowing how popular Carmen would become. In October 1875 it was produced in Vienna, to critical and popular success, which began its path to worldwide popularity. It was not staged again at the Opéra Comique until 1883.
Bizet's final opera not only transformed the opéra comique genre that had been static for half a century, it virtually killed it. Within a few years, the traditional distinction between opera (serious, heroic and declamatory) and opéra comique (light-hearted, bourgeois and conversational with spoken dialogue) disappeared. Moreover, Carmen nourished a movement that was to win both celebrity and notoriety first in Italy and then elsewhere: the cult of realism known as verismo.
The early death of Bizet, and the negligence of his immediate heirs and publisher led, as with most of Bizet's operas, to major textual problems for which scholars and performers only began to find solutions in the 1960s.
The story is set in Seville, Spain, around 1820, and concerns the eponymous Carmen, a beautiful gypsy with a fiery temper. Free with her love, she woos the corporal Don José, an inexperienced soldier. Their relationship leads to his rejection of his former love, mutiny against his superior, and joining a gang of smugglers. His jealousy when she turns from him to the bullfighter Escamillo leads him to murder Carmen

Georges Bizet


Wednesday, November 28, 2012

William Tell

From the opera by Rossini based on a Swiss folk tale. Stamped and tinted brass button with steel back and wire shank.  Scarce

William Tell is an opera in four acts by Gioachino Rossini to a French libretto by Étienne de Jouy and Hippolyte Bis. It was based on Friedrich Schiller's play William Tell, which drew on the William Tell legend. This opera was Rossini's last, even though the composer lived for nearly forty more years. The William Tell Overture, with its famous finale, is a major part of the concert and recording repertoire.
While it was first performed by the Paris Opéra at the Salle Le Peletier on 3 August 1829, the opera's length, roughly four hours of music, and casting requirements, such as the high range required for the tenor part, have contributed to the difficulty of producing the work. When it is performed, it is often heavily cut. Performances have been given in both French and Italian. Political concerns have also contributed to the varying fortunes of the work.
Charles Malherbe, archivist at the Paris Opéra, discovered the original orchestral score of the opera at a secondhand book seller's shop, resulting in it being acquired by the Paris Conservatoire

“Lettie and I went to Rochester today. I took the Munro cow to bull when I got home.  Very cold day.”

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Robinson Crusoe

Stamped and cutout brass button on a painted metal liner.

Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe that was first published in 1719. Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is a fictional autobiography of the title character (whose birth name is Robinson Kreutznaer)—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals, captives, and mutineers before being rescued.

The story was perhaps influenced by the life of Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived for four years on the Pacific island called "Más a Tierra" (in 1966 its name was changed to Robinson Crusoe Island), Chile. The details of Crusoe's island were probably based on the Caribbean island of Tobago, since that island lies a short distance north of the Venezuelan coast near the mouth of the Orinoco river, in sight of Trinidad. It is possible that Defoe was inspired by the Latin or English translations of Ibn Tufail's Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, an earlier novel also set on a desert island. Another source for Defoe's novel may have been Robert Knox's account of his abduction by the King of Ceylon in 1659 in "An Historical Account of the Island Ceylon," Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons (Publishers to the University), 1911.

Title page from the first edition

“I picked up the corn on the barn floor this morning and put up nine sacks to have ground for the cows.  This afternoon, I went to mill.”

“I went and got my feed this morning.  Went to the sale after dinner.  Got home about three and husked corn in the barn.  Pleasant but windy.”


Sunday, November 25, 2012

Saint Cecilia

Stamped brass button on a metal background which was originally painted and mounted inside a wide decorative brass border stamped with a chain-link pattern.

Saint Cecilia is the patroness of musicians and Church music because, as she was dying, she sang to God. It is also written that as the musicians played at her wedding she "sang in her heart to the Lord". St. Cecilia was an only child. Her feast day is celebrated in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches on November 22. She is one of seven women, excluding the Blessed Virgin, commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass. It was long supposed that she was a noble lady of Rome who, with her husband Valerian, his brother Tiburtius, and a Roman soldier Maximus, suffered martyrdom in about 230, under the Emperor Alexander Severus.
The research of Giovanni Battista de Rossi, however, appears to confirm the statement of Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers (d. 600), that she perished in Sicily under Emperor Marcus Aurelius between 176 and 180. A church in her honor exists in Rome from about the 5th century, was rebuilt with much splendor by Pope Paschal I around the year 820, and again by Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati in 1599. It is situated in Trastevere, near the Ripa Grande quay, where in earlier days the ghetto was located, and is the titulus of a Cardinal Priest, currently vacant.
The martyrdom of Cecilia is said to have followed that of her husband and his brother by the prefect Turcius Almachius. The officers of the prefect then sought to have Cecilia killed as well. She arranged to have her home preserved as a church before she was arrested. At that time, the officials attempted to kill her by smothering her by steam. However, the attempt failed, and she was to have her head chopped off. But they were unsuccessful three times, and she would not die until she received the sacrament of Holy Communion.
Cecilia survived another three days before succumbing. In the last three days of her life, she opened her eyes, gazed at her family and friends who crowded around her cell, closed them, and never opened them again. The people by her cell knew immediately that she was to become a saint in heaven. When her incorruptible body was found long after her death, it was found that on one hand she had two fingers outstretched and on the other hand just one finger, denoting her belief in the Holy Trinity.
The Sisters of Saint Cecilia are a group of women consecrated religious sisters. They are the ones who shear the lambs' wool used to make the palliums of new metropolitan archbishops. The lambs are raised by the Cistercian Trappist Fathers of the Tre Fontane (Three Fountains) Abbey in Rome. The lambs are blessed by the Pope every January 21, the Feast of the martyr Saint Agnes. The pallia are given by the Pope to the new metropolitan archbishops on the Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul, June 29.

“I went up and got the balance of the shingles this forenoon another good load.  I husked corn in the barn this afternoon.  Pleasant but a heavy show squall came up about 4 o’clock this afternoon.


Friday, November 23, 2012

First a Kiss

First Kiss, from a Victorian genre painting by Meyer von Bremen. The button is is also know as "Pay Toll Here". Stamped brass, pierced and mounted over a painted metal background.

Johann Georg Meyer von Bremen, 1813-1886. Johann Georg called Meyer von Bremen, born in Bremen, October 28, 1813. Genre painter, pupil of Düsseldorf Academy under Karl Ferdinand Sohn (1805-1867, Cologne) and Friedrich Wilheim Schadow (1789-1862, Düsseldorf).

“Will Holmes and I went down to Bergin Today and got a load of seed barley off Geo. H. Wilcox.  Rained a little this forenoon but none this afternoon/”

Thursday, November 22, 2012

Happy Thanksgiving!

“I husked corn in the barn this forenoon.  Went up to the mill this afternoon and sorted over the Bal. of the shingles at the mill.  Will have another load of good ones.  Pleasant day.”

Wednesday, November 21, 2012


Based on the story of the two lovers in "When Knighthood was in Flower" by Edwin Caskoden

Cutout brass button  backed by a darkened liner with a shiny liner under the pierced border.

When Knighthood Was in Flower is the debut novel of American author Charles Major written under the pseudonym, Edwin Caskoden. It was first published by The Bobbs-Merrill Company in 1898 and proved an enormous success.
According to the New York Times, in its third year on the market the book was still selling so well that it was #9 on the list of bestselling novels in the United States for 1900.
The book spawned an entire industry of historical romantic novels and films.
In 1901, playwright Paul Kester wrote the Broadway play and by 1907 When Knighthood Was in Flower was still being printed by the reprint publisher, Grosset & Dunlap, when the film rights were sold to Biograph Studios.
It was sometimes known by the title When Knights Were Bold and should not be confused with the 1906 play When Knights Were Bold which also inspired several film adapations.
Set during the Tudor period of English history, When Knighthood Was in Flower tells the tribulations of Mary Tudor, a younger sister of Henry VIII of England who has fallen in love with a commoner. However, for political reasons, King Henry has arranged for her to wed King Louis XII of France and demands his sister put the House of Tudor first, threatening, "You will marry France and I will give you a wedding present – Charles Brandon's head!"

“I got in the balance of the corn this forenoon.  This afternoon I went up town and got a load of shingles from the XXXXX Mill.  Pleasant day.”

Tuesday, November 20, 2012

Buster Brown

An antique button picturing Buster Brown and his dog Tige

21-year old dwarf actor, "Master Gabriel" plays the title role of Buster Brown, with George Ali as Tige, in the 1905 Broadway production
Buster Brown was a comic strip character created in 1902 by Richard Felton Outcault who was known for his association with the Brown Shoe Company. (The name "Buster" came either directly or indirectly from the popularity of Buster Keaton, then a child actor in vaudeville.)
This mischievous young boy was loosely based on a boy near Outcault's home in Flushing, New York. His physical appearance, including the pageboy haircut, was utilized by Outcault and later adopted by Buster Brown. The actual boy's name was Granville Hamilton Fisher, son of Charles and Anna Fisher of Flushing. The family subsequently moved to Amityville, New York where Charles Fisher ran a real estate and insurance business on Merrick Road. Granville operated a phonograph and radio sales and repair shop across the street from his father until his sudden death in 1936.
Richard Barker played Buster Brown in the Brown Shoe Company advertising campaign as a small child. There is a book written about Richard Barker and his life as Buster Brown in the advertising campaign. The book about Richard Barker is titled “Buster Brown and the Cowboy”.

“I sorted over a load of corn and put up eight sacks to take to mill and cleaned up some barley to take with it this forenoon.  This afternoon I took it to mill.”

“I husked corn in the barn all day.  Quite cold”


Sunday, November 18, 2012


Rigoletto is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The Italian libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based on the play Le roi s'amuse by Victor Hugo. It was first performed at La Fenice in Venice on 11 March 1851. Despite serious initial problems with the Austrian censors who had control over northern Italian theatres at the time, the opera had a triumphant premiere and is considered by many to be the first of the operatic masterpieces of Verdi's middle-to-late career. Its tragic story revolves around the licentious Duke of Mantua, his hunch-backed court jester Rigoletto, and Rigoletto's beautiful daughter Gilda. The opera's original title, La maledizione (The Curse), refers to the curse placed on both the Duke and Rigoletto by a courtier whose daughter had been seduced by the Duke with Rigoletto's encouragement. The curse comes to fruition when Gilda likewise falls in love with the Duke and eventually sacrifices her life to save him from the assassins hired by her father.


Saturday, November 17, 2012

Rip Van Winkle

"Rip Van Winkle" is a short story by the American author Washington Irving published in 1819, as well as the name of the story's fictional protagonist. Written while Irving was living in Birmingham, England, it was part of a collection entitled The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. Although the story is set in New York's Catskill Mountains, Irving later admitted, "When I wrote the story, I had never been on the Catskills."
The story of Rip Van Winkle is set in the years before and after the American Revolutionary War. In a pleasant village, at the foot of New York's Catskill Mountains, lives the kindly Rip Van Winkle, a colonial British-American villager of Dutch descent. Rip is an amiable man who enjoys solitary activities in the wilderness, but is also loved by all in town—especially the children to whom he tells stories and gives toys. However, a tendency to avoid all gainful labor, for which his nagging wife (Dame Van Winkle) chastises him, allows his home and farm to fall into disarray due to his lazy neglect.
One autumn day, Rip is escaping his wife's nagging, wandering up the mountains with his dog, Wolf. Hearing his name being shouted, Rip discovers that the speaker is a man dressed in antiquated Dutch clothing, carrying a keg up the mountain, who requires Rip's help. Without exchanging words, the two hike up to an amphitheatre-like hollow in which Rip discovers the source of previously-heard thunderous noises: there is a group of other ornately-dressed, silent, bearded men who are playing nine-pins. Although there is no conversation and Rip does not ask the men who they are or how they know his name, he discreetly begins to drink some of their liquor, and soon falls asleep.
He awakes in unusual circumstances: It seems to be morning, his gun is rotted and rusty, his beard has grown a foot long, and Wolf is nowhere to be found. Rip returns to his village where he finds that he recognizes no one. Asking around, he discovers that his wife has died and that his close friends have died in a war or gone somewhere else. He immediately gets into trouble when he proclaims himself a loyal subject of King George III, not knowing that the American Revolution has taken place; George III's portrait on the town inn has been replaced by that of George Washington. Rip is also disturbed to find another man is being called Rip Van Winkle (though this is in fact his son, who has now grown up).
The men he met in the mountains, Rip learns, are rumored to be the ghosts of Hendrick (Henry) Hudson's crew. Rip is told that he has apparently been away from the village for twenty years. An old local recognizes Rip and Rip's now-adult daughter takes him in. Rip resumes his habitual idleness, and his tale is solemnly taken to heart by the Dutch settlers, with other hen-pecked husbands, after hearing his story, wishing they could share in Rip's good luck, and have the luxury of sleeping through the hardships of war.

“We finished husking out the floor and picked up the corn.  Then drew in a load of stalks and a load of shocks of corn.”

“Drew in bal of the stalks this morning and about 54 shocks of corn this forenoon.  Will Holmes and I went to the bull play this afternoon. About 47 shocks of corn in the field yet.”

Thursday, November 15, 2012

An 18th Century Button

An 18th Century Button: painting on Ivory "en grisalle" (in tones of black, white and grey) mounted under glass in a copper rim and brass back.

“Drew in some corn this morning.  John McPherson and wife came about 10 o’clock and stayed until about two.  We husked a little corn after they went away.  Rather unpleasant day.”

“Husked corn until about 4 o’clock and then picked up what we had husked and put it in the corn house.”

Tuesday, November 13, 2012

Pilgrim's Progress

Christian form The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan. The design is of brass, applied to a one piece, brass button

The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come is a Christian allegory written by John Bunyan and published in February, 1678. It is regarded as one of the most significant works of religious English literature, has been translated into more than 200 languages, and has never been out of print. Bunyan began his work while in the Bedfordshire county gaol for violations of the Conventicle Act, which prohibited the holding of religious services outside the auspices of the established Church of England. Early Bunyan scholars like John Brown believed The Pilgrim's Progress was begun in Bunyan's second shorter imprisonment for six months in 1675, but more recent scholars like Roger Sharrock believe that it was begun during Bunyan's initial, more lengthy imprisonment from 1660-1672 right after he had written his spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners.
The English text comprises 108,260 words and is divided into two parts, each reading as a continuous narrative with no chapter divisions. The first part was completed in 1677 and entered into the stationers' register on December 22, 1677. It was licensed and entered in the "Term Catalogue" on February 18, 1678, which is looked upon as the date of first publication. After the first edition of the first part in 1678, an expanded edition, with additions written after Bunyan was freed, appeared in 1679. The Second Part appeared in 1684. There were eleven editions of the first part in John Bunyan's lifetime, published in successive years from 1678 to 1685 and in 1688, and there were two editions of the second part, published in 1684 and 1686.

“Husked corn until about three o’clock and then picked up what was on the floor and drew in some more shocks.  Pleasant day.”

Monday, November 12, 2012

Pied Piper of Hamelin

  The Pied Piper of Hamelin is the subject of a legend concerning the departure or death of a great many children from the town of Hamelin (Hameln), Lower Saxony, Germany, in the Middle Ages. The earliest references describe a piper, dressed in pied (multicolored) clothing, leading the children away from the town never to return. In the 16th century the story was expanded into a full narrative, in which the piper is a rat-catcher hired by the town to lure rats away with his magic pipe. When the citizenry refuses to pay for this service, he retaliates by turning his magic on their children, leading them away as he had the rats. This version of the story spread as a fairy tale. This version has also appeared in the writings of, among others, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the Brothers Grimm and Robert Browning.
The story may reflect a historical event in which Hamelin lost its children. Theories have been proposed suggesting that the Pied Piper is a symbol of the children's death by plague or catastrophe. Other theories liken him to figures like Nicholas of Cologne, who lured away a great number of children on a disastrous Children's Crusade. A recent theory ties the departure of Hamelin's children to the Ostsiedlung, in which a number of Germans left their homes to colonize Eastern Europe. It is also a story about paying those who are due.

“Picked the rest of the apples this forenoon.  The little Pierce boys came up and picked up the cider apples on shares.  After dinner we drew in some corn and loaded the cider apples and got them under the shed.  Growing cold to night.”

“I drew the cider apples to the mill this forenoon (30 bu.) and got a barrel of cider.  After dinner, I helped Will load a load of hay and husked corn rest of the day.”

Friday, November 9, 2012

Back Name Buttons

Martin Van Buren "back name" button. For a thirty-year period beginning in 1820, clothing button manufacturers introduced a form of political button that gave new meaning to the term "low key." These were the "back name" buttons. On these gilt brass buttons, the name of the candidate was impressed on the back side, surrounding the shank. Accordingly, collectors display these with shank side up. This Van Buren "back name" has a beautiful ornamental design on the face and is inscribed "Martin Van Buren Excelsior" on the backside. The "Excelsior" does not refer to the state motto of Van's home state of New York, but the grade of the button. This may date from the election of 1836, even though it is included with the 1840 items in Sullivan-DeWitt. MINT condition.                                      

“I helped Will butcher the rest of their pigs this forenoon.  Picked sky apples this afternoon.  Pleasant day.”

Tuesday, November 6, 2012

Election Day

Election Day in Philadelphia, y John Lewis Krimmel, 1815
Election Day in the United States is the day set by law for the general elections of public officials. It occurs on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The earliest possible date is November 2 and the latest possible date is November 8.
For federal offices (President, Vice President, and United States Congress), Election Day occurs only in even-numbered years. Presidential elections are held every four years, in years divisible by four, in which electors for President and Vice President are chosen according to the method determined by each state. Elections to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate are held every two years; all Representatives serve two-year terms and are up for election every two years, while Senators serve six-year terms, staggered so that one-third of Senators are elected in any given general election. General elections in which presidential candidates are not on the ballot are referred to as midterm elections. Terms for those elected begin in January the following year; the President and Vice President are inaugurated ("sworn in") on Inauguration Day, usually January 20.
Many state and local government offices are also elected on Election Day as a matter of convenience and cost saving, although a handful of states hold elections for state offices (such as governor) during odd-numbered "off years".
Congress has mandated a uniform date for presidential (3 U.S.C. § 1) and congressional (2 U.S.C. § 1 and 2 U.S.C. § 7) elections, though early voting is nonetheless authorized in many states. In Oregon, where all elections are vote-by-mail, all ballots must be received by a set time on Election Day, as is common with absentee ballots in most states (except overseas military ballots which receive more time by federal law). In the state of Washington, where all elections are also vote-by-mail, ballots need only be postmarked by Election Day.
Election Day is a civic holiday in some states, including Delaware, Hawaii, Kentucky, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, West Virginia, and the territory of Puerto Rico. Some other states require that workers be permitted to take time off from employment without loss of pay. California Elections Code Section 14000 provides that employees otherwise unable to vote must be allowed two hours off with pay, at the beginning or end of a shift.

Monday, November 5, 2012

Liberty Cap

Eagles, lions, snakes, and other animals have been used as symbols of a country’s spirit, resolute nature or power. Allegories of Justice have been used on money usually when depicting the national seal. Several countries have depicted hydroelectric dams to honor their power generation. Images of farming, aviation, industry, etc have all been used very frequently. One of the more famous symbols has been that of Liberty. Over the years, Liberty has been depicted as female, even though civil rights (liberties) for women were a long time in coming. She has been depicted in many ways, but whether as standing, sitting, reclining, reaching, bare breasted, regal or what have you, she has always been the symbol of both hope and accomplishment relating to freedom. Lady Liberty has been depicted on money throughout North, Central and South America as well as in France. One aspect of the depiction of Liberty, well known in its day, seems to have lost its significance today. This depiction is of the Liberty Cap, also known as the Phrygian Cap. This cap, an actual cap worn through the ages, is a brimless cap made usually of red felt, and was worn with the top pulled to the front. This is a brief history of that icon.
The cap was worn first in the ancient land known as Phrygia in what is now Turkey. It is generally accepted that Phrygia was settled about 1200 B.C. and prospered until the 6th century B.C. when it fell to the Cimmerians, then was ruled by the Kingdom of Lydia, then Cyrus, and eventually Rome. It is important to note that Phrygia was best known as a source of slaves, and it is believed that as slaves were freed, they would again be able to wear the Phrygian cap of their homeland. This soon became a symbol of emancipated slaves especially in Rome and Greece.
Fast forwarding to the year 1675 there was a revolt in Brittany known as the Bonnets Rouges which was an uprising against taxes, demanded rights to land and water, and against misappropriated tithes. During this revolt people wore “Bonnets Rouge” or “Red Hats” which became a well known symbol as a revolt against the government. It is believed that the caps either were, or were similar to the style of, the Phrygian caps. This may have been on the minds of American revolutionaries when the Liberty Cap was adopted. As a side note, it is also curious that the traditional flag of Brittany is similar in design to the US flag, with black and white alternating stripes, a white field where the US blue field is and ermine spots where the US stars are. Though I do not in any way suggest that the design was adopted from Brittany, it is mentioned here merely as a curious coincidence.
In 1675 the Sons of Liberty, a formal underground secret pre revolutionary organization of American Patriots from the 13 colonies, adopted the Liberty Pole and Cap as a symbol of liberty. The Liberty Pole is a pole similar to a flagpole which would fly a flag or be topped with a Phrygian Cap. Handbills would be printed summoning interested parties to meetings and speeches for Liberty at various places including the Liberty Tree and Liberty Pole. It is likely that the pole or tree was adorned with the cap during such meetings to draw people to the spot. During the American Revolution, soldiers in the North Eastern colonies were known to wear red caps embroidered with “Liberty” or “Liberty or Death”.
In early American literature, Washington Irving referred to the Liberty Cap in his tale about Rip Van Winkle, describing a groggy Rip confused at sighting the ‘red night cap’ on a pole in town.
In 1855 a model of an allegorical figure of Justice presented by the sculptor Thomas Crawford for a statue to top the US Capitol Building was depicted with a Liberty Cap. This was rejected by Jefferson Davis, who was then the US Secretary of War, because of the history of the cap being tied to freed slaves. His objections were based on his belief that American freedom was not transferable to slaves held in the United States. The cap was thus redesigned to a helmet with an Iroquois Headdress. Jefferson Davis was later to become the President of the Confederate States.
The Liberty Cap is depicted on the seal of the US Army, the seal of the US Senate, the state flags of Idaho, New Jersey, New York, West Virginia, and on the state seals of Arkansas, Iowa, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina and West Virginia. Several coins and paper currencies have had illustrations of the Liberty Cap and Pole. The last circulating US Coin to depict the Liberty Cap was the 1947 Walking Liberty Half Dollar, yet this design is still used on the non-circulating one ounce silver bullion one dollar coin to this day.
In France, the cap is known better as the Bonnet Rouge of Bonnet Liberté. After the Bonnets Rouge revolt in 1675 and the American Revolution, the cap was well known as a symbol of liberty. The French Revolution used the Liberty cap from as early as 1789, and was depicted as being worn by both Liberty and France's Marianne. Its first public appearance as a symbol of freedom was in May 1790 when it was on a statue of Marianne (an allegory of the French Nation) and on a spear of a statue of Liberty. The Sans-Culottes, the poorer class revolutionary who wore full length trousers instead of the popular knee high trousers (Culottes) soon incorporated the Bonnet Rouge into their daily dress as a uniform identity. When deposed, King Louis the XVI was made to wear a Bonnet Rouge as was the Archbishop of Paris. In 1793 the Liberty Cap had become a national symbol and was on the Seal of the French Republic and on roadway milestones throughout the country. The Phrygian cap is still worn by Marianne today, depicted in a logo on all national papers and media.
The poorly led 1798 Irish rebellion by the Society of United Irishmen adopted the Liberty cap as an emblem as well. It was depicted with the Brian Boru harp, a national symbol.
As the western hemisphere struggled to gain independence from the European colonizers and the early unsatisfactory leaders, the Liberty cap and its symbolism moved south through Mexico and the Caribbean into Central and South America. As well as on coats of arms and flags, the Liberty Cap has appeared on the coins and currencies of most of these nations, and many can still be seen today, primarily shown on a liberty pole or alone rather than worn.