Sunday, July 31, 2011

YouTube Video on Victorian Charm Strings

“I started the plow this forenoon.  After dinner we commenced cut the piece of barley up south but about half past three a very black cloud came up and we came home but it did not rain much until about half past five them it rain until nearly  seven o’clock a nice mild rain.”

This is my video on Victorian Charm strings


Saturday, July 30, 2011

The Chicago World's Fair of 1893

Jackson Park (Chicago) during the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition (the official shortened name for the World's Fair: Columbian Exposition, also known as The Chicago World's Fair) was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St. Louis for the honor of hosting the fair. The fair had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicago's self-image, and American industrial optimism. The Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in large part, designed by Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted. It was the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues thought a city should be. It was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry, balance, and splendor.

The Statue of the Republic overlooks the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893

The exposition covered more than 600 acres (2.4 km2), featuring nearly 200 new (but purposely temporary) buildings of predominately neoclassical architecture, canals and lagoons, and people and cultures from around the world. More than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run. Its scale and grandeur far exceeded the other world fairs, and it became a symbol of the emerging American Exceptionalism, much in the same way that the Great Exhibition became a symbol of the Victorian era United Kingdom.
Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21, 1892, but the fairgrounds were not actually opened to the public until May 1, 1893. The fair continued until October 30, 1893. In addition to recognizing the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World by Europeans, the fair also served to show the world that Chicago had risen from the ashes of the Great Chicago Fire. This had destroyed much of the city in 1871. On October 9, 1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the fair set a record for outdoor event attendance, drawing 716,881 persons to the fair.

The original Ferris Wheel
Many prominent civic, professional, and commercial leaders from around the United States participated in the financing, coordination, and management of the Fair, including Chicago shoe tycoon Charles Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, and Connecticut banking, insurance, and iron products magnate Milo Barnum Richardson, among many others.
The exposition was such a major event in Chicago that one of the stars on the municipal flag honors it.


Friday, July 29, 2011


“I shovel plowed the potatoes this forenoon and Father moved a load of grass on the flat lot where the wheat killed out.  After dinner I went up town and got some ice for Ice cream and then we got in the load of hay.  Very pleasant day.”

TGIF!  These people are really looking forward to the weekend.  You can tell by their smiling faces.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

The last in a series of freaky doll pictures.

“I drew out three loads of manure this morning and then we drew in our wheat rakings (father raked them yesterday and the day before) and I cultivated the beans twice in a row this afternoon.  A beautiful day.”

The last in a set of freaky doll pictures.

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Time to start picking fruit?

“I cut the barley for Will Holmes today (about 6 acres) got it done about four o’clock.  Mike drew out manure today and I helped him after I got Will’s field done until night.  Has been a cool and pleasant day.”

It is getting close to the time to start picking fruit.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

The last of the Family Budgets in 1884

“Rained during the night and several showers until about eight o’clock this morning.  I went up town this morning.  After dinner, I took out the binder and commenced cutting a piece of barley for Will Holmes but a heavy shower about two o’clock stopped us and it rained nearly two hours.”


Of father $240
Of daughter, aged seventeen $340
Of son, aged fifteen $200

Total $780
CONDITION: Family numbers 5 - parents and three children, two boys, aged fifteen and seven, and a girl, aged seventeen. Live in a 4-room house, and pay $10 per month rent for the same. House is comfortable, but poorly furnished, and is in unhealthy location. Family attends church. Their expenditures exceed their income .

Breakfast—Meat, potatoes, bread, and coffee.
Dinner—Lunches .
Supper—Soup, bread, and meat.

Rent $120
Fuel $15
Meat and groceries $300
Clothing, boots and shoes, dry goods $120
Books, papers, etc. $5
Sickness $40
Sundries $250
Total $850

Monday, July 25, 2011

The Family Budget of an Italian Laborer in 1884

“Helped Mr. Holmes in their wheat (Mike and I) and we finished drawing the bundles.  Has been very windy today.”


EARNINGS: Of father $270.00

CONDITION: Family numbers 5 - parents and three children, all boys, aged one, three, and five. Live in one room, for which they pay $4 per month rent. A very dirty and unhealthy place, everything perfectly filthy. There are about fifteen other families living in the same house. They buy the cheapest kind of meat from the neighboring slaughterhouses and the children pick up fuel on the streets and rotten eatables from the commission houses. Children do not attend school. They are all ignorant in the full sense of the word. Father could not write his name.

Breakfast—Coffee and bread.
Supper—Coffee and bread.

Rent $48
Fuel $5
Meat and groceries $100
Clothing, boots and shoes, and dry goods $15
Sickness $5
Total $173

Sunday, July 24, 2011

The Family Budget of an Irish Laborer's Family in 1884

“We built our wheat stack today.  Got is done about five o’clock and drew in three loads for Mr Holmes.  Has been a beautiful day and we have our wheat all in except the rakings.”


EARNINGS: Of father $343
CONDITION: Family numbers 5 - parents and three children, two girls, aged seven and five, and boy, eight. They occupy a rented house of 4 rooms, and pay a rental, monthly, of $7. Two of the children attend school. Father complains of the wages he receives, being but $1.10 per day, and says it is extremely difficult for him to support his family upon that amount. His work consists in cleaning yards, basements, outbuildings, etc., and is, in fact, a regular scavenger. He also complains of the work as being very unhealthy, but it seems he can procure no other work.

Breakfast—Black coffee, bread, and potatoes
Dinner—Corned beef, cabbage, and potatoes.
Supper—Bread, coffee, and potatoes.

Rent $84
Fuel $15
Meat and groceries $180
Clothing, boots and shoes, dry goods $40
Sundries $20
Total $339

Saturday, July 23, 2011

The Family Budget of an Irish Coal Mining Family in 1884

Of father $420
Of son, twenty-one years of age $420
Of son, eighteen years of age $420
Of son, sixteen years of age $150
Total $1,410

CONDITION: Family numbers 6 - parents and four children, three boys and one girl. The girl attends school, and the three boys are working in the mine. Father owns a house of six rooms, which is clean and very comfortably furnished. Family temperate, and members of a church, which they attend with regularity. They have an acre of ground, which they work in summer, and raise vegetables for their consumption. They have their house about paid for, payments being made in installments of $240 per year. Father belongs to mutual assessment association and to trade union.

Breakfast—Steak, bread, butter, potatoes, bacon, and coffee.
Dinner—Bread, butter, meat, cheese, pie, and tea.
Supper—Meat, potatoes, bread, butter, puddings, pie, and coffee.

Rent $240
Fuel $10
Meat $200
Groceries $700
Clothing $80
Boots, shoes, and dry goods $70
Books, papers, etc. $15
Life insurance $18
Trade union $3
Sickness $4
Sundries $75
Total $1,415


Friday, July 22, 2011

The Family Budget of an Iron and Steel Worker

“We drew wheat all day for Mr. Holmes and cleared the hill lot and nearly all of the south lot.  A shower about half past five hindered us from getting it all cleaned out.  About two loads left in the south lot.”

Of father $1,420
Of son, aged fourteen $300
Total $1,720
CONDITION: Family numbers 6 - parents and four children; two boys and two girls, aged from seven to sixteen years. Three of them attend school, and the other works in the shop with his father. Family occupy their own house, containing 9 well furnished rooms, in a pleasant and healthy locality. They have a good vegetable and flower garden. They live well, but not extravagantly, and are saving about a thousand dollars per year. Father receives an average of $7 per day of twelve hours, for his labor, and works about thirty-four weeks of the year. Belongs to trade union, but carries no life insurance. Had but little sickness during the year.

Breakfast—Bread, butter, meat, eggs, and sometimes oysters.
Dinner—Potatoes, bread, butter, meat, pie, cake, or pudding.
Supper—Bread, butter, meat, rice or sauce, and tea or coffee.

Fuel $55
Meat $100
Groceries $300
Clothing $75
Boots and shoes $50
Dry goods $50
Books, papers, etc. $10
Trade union $6
Sickness $12
Sundries $50

Total $708

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Family budget of a Coal Miner in 1884

“I went and finished cutting Mr. Holmes wheat this morning which took about 2 ½ hours.  Then we unloaded a load of hay that stood on the wagon and drew in a load of wheat before dinner.  After dinner Will Holmes came with a team and man and we cleared the east lot and got it done about 4 o’clock and drew in two loads apiece for them.”

I found an interesting site that discusses six families and how they budgeted their money in Chicago in 1884.

These six family budgets collected by the Illinois Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1884 show the range of family incomes and spending patterns within the working class. Although skill level was probably the most important determinant of wages, relatively few male breadwinners were able to earn a “family wage”—enough to support their wives and children decently. Most families pooled their members’ wages in what historians call the “family economy.” The wages of children and teenagers often meant the difference between a modicum of comfort and mere survival, and women who were not working for wages sometimes brought in money by operating home-based businesses such as washing clothes or keeping boarders. Women also contributed to the family’s economic survival by managing the household budget, sharing resources with other female householders, and scavenging for discarded food, clothes, and fuel. Unlike current times, prices were not constantly rising in the late-19th century, and the period’s declining prices (particularly food prices) allowed a modest, gradual improvement in working-class living standards.
I will post one family a day for the next six days
EARNINGS: Of father $250
CONDITION: Family numbers 7 - husband, wife, and five children, three girls and two boys, aged from three to nineteen years. Three of them go to the public school. Family live in 2-room tenement, in healthy locality, for which they pay $6 per month rent. The house is scantily furnished, without carpets, but is kept neat and clean. They are compelled to live very economically, and every cent they earn is used to the best advantage. Father had only thirty weeks work during the past year. He belongs to trade union. The figures for cost of living are actual and there is no doubt the family lived on the amount specified.
Breakfast—Bread, coffee, and salt meat.
Dinner—Meat, bread, coffee, and butter.
Supper—Sausage, bread, and coffee.
Rent $72
Fuel $20
Meat $20
Groceries $60
Clothing $28
Boots and shoes $15
Dry goods $20
Trade union $3
Sickness $10
Sundries $5
Total $253


Wednesday, July 20, 2011

July Savings Special!

“I finished cutting our wheat this morning and went up and cut about four acres for Mr. Stanley.  I got home from there about five O’clock and drew the machine in Mr. Holmes lot to cut a couple acres for them.  They brook their machine today.  Beautiful day.”

Just a few more days left to use the July Coupon at The Buttonmonger.  Enter Code:A71I8H0JR2635 at checkout to receive 15% off your entire order.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

What is a boiler?

“We finished cutting the second lot of wheat this morning and cut in the south lot from about 8 o’clock.  About two hours will finish that piece.  Has been a very fine day.”

Workers in the Mohawk Carpet Boiler Room - 1924

A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Although the definitions are somewhat flexible, it can be said that older steam generators were commonly termed boilers and worked at low to medium pressure (1–300 psi/0.069–20.684 bar; 6.895–2,068.427 kPa) but, at pressures above this, it is more usual to speak of a steam generator.
A boiler or steam generator is used wherever a source of steam is required. The form and size depends on the application: mobile steam engines such as steam locomotives, portable engines and steam-powered road vehicles typically use a smaller boiler that forms an integral part of the vehicle; stationary steam engines, industrial installations and power stations will usually have a larger separate steam generating facility connected to the point-of-use by piping. A notable exception is the steam-powered fireless locomotive, where separately-generated steam is transferred to a receiver (tank) on the locomotive.

Monday, July 18, 2011

The Bells of St. Mary's

“We finished cutting the east lot this forenoon and cut on the six acre lot this afternoon.  Have about half an hours work to do yet on that lot.  It’s been a very pleasant day.”

This picture reminds me of the movie "The Bells of St. Mary's"

The Bells of St. Mary's - 1945: Father Chuck O'Malley is assigned as the pastor of an inner-city Catholic school and has to work with the dedicated, but stubborn, principal Sister Mary Benedict. O'Malley and Sister Mary Benedict quarrel frequently and he feels the school should be closed and the children sent to a nearby school with modern facilities but all of the sisters believe that God will provide for them. Specifically, they put their hopes on Horace P. Bogardus, a businessman who has built a modern building right next door to the school and who they hope will donate his new edifice to them.

Sunday, July 17, 2011

The Great Chicago Fire

“I went over and cut Lawrence’s wheat today and Mike Shovel plowed the potatoes one way.  I got home about half past five and cut five times around the wheat lot east of the barn. “

The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday, October 8, to early Tuesday, October 10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying about 4 square miles (10 km2) in Chicago, Illinois. Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of the 19th century, the rebuilding that began almost immediately spurred Chicago's development into one of the most populous and economically important American cities. On the municipal flag of Chicago, the second star commemorates the fire. Even to this day the exact cause and origin of the fire remain uncertain.

The fire started at about 9 p.m. on Sunday, October 8, in or around a small barn that bordered the alley behind 137 DeKoven Street. The traditional account of the origin of the fire is that it was started by a cow kicking over a lantern in the barn owned by Patrick and Catherine O'Leary. Michael Ahern, the Chicago Republican reporter who created the cow story, admitted in 1893 that he had made it up because he thought it would make colorful copy.

The fire's spread was aided by the city's overuse of wood for building, a drought prior to the fire, and strong winds from the southwest that carried flying embers toward the heart of the city. The city also made fatal errors by not reacting soon enough and citizens were apparently unconcerned when it began. The firefighters were also exhausted from fighting a fire that happened the day before. The firefighters fought the fire through the entire day and became extremely exhausted. Eventually the fire jumped to a nearby neighborhood and began to devastate mansions, houses and apartments. Almost everything that crossed the fire's path was made of wood that had been dried out for quite a while. After two days of the city burning down it began to rain and doused the remaining fire. It is said that over 300 people died in the fire and over 100,000 were left homeless.

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Over a Barrel!

Bobby Leach and his barrel after his trip over Niagara Falls, 1911

In October 1829, Sam Patch, who called himself "the Yankee Leapster", jumped from a high tower into the gorge below the falls and survived; this began a long tradition of daredevils trying to go over the falls. On October 24, 1901, 63-year-old Michigan school teacher Annie Edson Taylor was the first person to go over the falls in a barrel as a publicity stunt; she survived, bleeding, but virtually unharmed. Soon after exiting the barrel, she said, "No one ought ever do that again." Previous to Taylor's own attempt, on October 19 a domestic cat named Iagara was sent over the Horseshoe Falls in her barrel to test its strength. Contrary to rumours at the time, the cat survived the plunge unharmed and later was posed with Taylor in photographs. Since Taylor's historic ride, 14 other people have intentionally gone over the falls in or on a device, despite her advice. Some have survived unharmed, but others have drowned or been severely injured. Survivors of such stunts face charges and stiff fines, as it is illegal, on both sides of the border, to attempt to go over the falls.

Blondin carrying his manager, Harry Colcord, on a tightrope

Other daredevils have made crossing the Falls their goal, starting with the successful passage by Jean François "Blondin" Gravelet in 1859. These tightrope walkers drew huge crowds to witness their exploits. Their wires ran across the gorge, near the current Rainbow Bridge, not over the waterfall itself. Among the many was Ontario's William Hunt, who billed himself as "The Great Farini" and competed with Blondin in performing outrageous stunts over the gorge. Englishman Captain Matthew Webb, the first man to swim the English Channel, drowned in 1883 after unsuccessfully trying to swim the rapids down river from the falls.

Annie Taylor posing next to her barrel

In the "Miracle at Niagara", Roger Woodward, a seven-year-old American boy, was swept over the Horseshoe Falls protected only by a life vest on July 9, 1960, as two tourists pulled his 17-year-old sister Deanne from the river only 20 feet (6 m) from the lip of the Horseshoe Falls at Goat Island.  Minutes later, Woodward was plucked from the roiling plunge pool beneath the Horseshoe Falls after grabbing a life ring thrown to him by the crew of the Maid of the Mist boat.
On July 2, 1984, Canadian Karel Soucek from Hamilton, Ontario successfully plunged over the Horseshoe Falls in a barrel with only minor injuries. Soucek was fined $500 for performing the stunt without a license. In 1985, he was fatally injured while attempting to re-create the Niagara drop at the Houston Astrodome. His aim was to climb into a barrel hoisted to the rafters of the Astrodome and to drop 180 feet (55 m) into a water tank on the floor. After his barrel released prematurely, it hit the side of the tank and he died the next day from his injuries.
In August 1985, Steve Trotter, an aspiring stunt man from Rhode Island, became the youngest person ever (age 22) and the first American in 25 years to go over the falls in a barrel. Ten years later, Trotter went over the falls again, becoming the second person to go over the falls twice and survive. It was also the second-ever "duo"; Lori Martin joined Trotter for the barrel ride over the falls. They survived the fall but their barrel became stuck at the bottom of the falls, requiring a rescue.
On September 28, 1989, Niagara's own Peter DeBernardi (age 42) and Jeffery James Petkovich (age 25) became the first "team" to successfully make it over the falls in a two-person barrel. The stunt was conceived by Peter DeBenardi, who wanted to discourage youth from following in his path of addictive drug use. Peter was also trying to leave a legacy and discourage his son Kyle Lahey DeBernardi (age 2) from using addictive drugs. Peter DeBernardi had initially planned to have a different passenger. However, Peter's original partner backed out, and Peter was forced to look for an alternative. Jeffery Petkovich agreed to attempt the stunt with him. Peter claims he spent an estimated $30,000 making his barrel, made of steel and fiberglass, which had harnesses, reinforcing steel bands, and viewing ports. Peter's barrel also had a radio for music and news reports, rudders to help steer the barrel through the falls, oxygen, and a well-protected video camera to record the journey over the edge. They emerged shortly after going over with minor injuries and were charged with performing an illegal stunt under the Niagara Parks Act.
On September 27, 1993 John "David" Munday, of Caistor Centre, Ontario, became the first known person to survive going over the falls twice.
Kirk Jones of Canton, Michigan became the first known person to survive a plunge over the Horseshoe Falls without a flotation device on October 20, 2003. While it is still not known whether Jones was determined to commit suicide, he survived the 16-story fall with only battered ribs, scrapes, and bruises.
A second person survived an unprotected trip over the Horseshoe Falls on March 11, 2009 and when rescued from the river, was reported to be suffering from severe hypothermia and a large wound to his head. His identity has not been released. Eyewitnesses reported seeing the man intentionally enter the water.

Friday, July 15, 2011

Pressed Black Glass Buttons

“Mike Cultivated in the corn until about 10 o’clock this morning and I finished the beans and then we drew in one load of hay before dinner.  After dinner we finished drawing the hay (three loads) and then Mike cultivated corn until night and I got out the binder canvas and did some fixing on it and put it on the machine.  Haying all done.”

A beautiful Pressed Black Glass button from the late 19th to early 20 century.  You can purchase this button as well as many others on my site:

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Freaky Doll Picture

“I went up town this morning and got a load (680 ft) of hemlock fencing lumber.  When I got home we stirred out most of the hay before dinner and the balance after dinner and bunched it up tonight.  Mike came at noon and he worked in the corn what time he had besides taking  care of the hay.  I cultivated about 2/3 of the beans.”

The second in the series of freaky doll pictures.


Wednesday, July 13, 2011

A Boat Ride!

“Looked like rain this morning and Will came over and we drew in what hay we had cut (four loads) and then I cut down the rest of the lot three or four loads more.  Rained about two o’clock so that we had to quit cultivating and Mike went home.  About half past six we got a heavy shower so that it is too wet to cultivate.”

I love these two pictures.  They seem to be sharing a happy moment.  That makes me very happy!


Tuesday, July 12, 2011

John Brown

“We drew in two loads of hay this morning and Will Holmes drew in two for us and then it rained and we did not do anything more before dinner.  After dinner, Mike and I ground a mover knife and then he went to cultivating corn and I went up town and got my boots mended.  When I came home, the hay was so dry that we drew in two loads more.  The weather cleared off and the wind blew very brisk this afternoon.”

For some reason, when I first saw this picture, I was reminded of John Brown.  However, A look at the picture below shows that they look nothing alike.

John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was a revolutionary abolitionist in the United States, who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to abolish slavery for good. He led the Pottawatomie Massacre during which five men were killed in 1856 in Bleeding Kansas and made his name in the unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859. Later that year he was tried and executed for treason against the state of Virginia, murder, and conspiracy. Brown has been called "the most controversial of all 19th-century Americans."
Brown's attempt in 1859 to start a liberation movement among enslaved African Americans in Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) electrified the nation. He was tried for treason against the state of Virginia, the murder of five pro-slavery Southerners, and inciting a slave insurrection and was subsequently hanged. Southerners alleged that his rebellion was the tip of the abolitionist iceberg and represented the wishes of the Republican Party to end slavery. Historians agree that the Harpers Ferry raid in 1859 escalated tensions that, a year later, led to secession and the American Civil War.
Brown first gained attention when he led small groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis. Unlike most other Northerners, who advocated peaceful resistance to the pro-slavery faction, Brown demanded violent action in response to Southern aggression. Dissatisfied with the pacifism encouraged by the organized abolitionist movement, he reportedly said, "These men are all talk. What we need is action—action!" During the Kansas campaign he and his supporters killed five pro-slavery southerners in what became known as the Pottawatomie Massacre in May 1856 in response to the raid of the "free soil" city of Lawrence. In 1859 he led a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (in modern-day West Virginia). During the raid, he seized the armory; seven people were killed, and ten or more were injured. He intended to arm slaves with weapons from the arsenal, but the attack failed. Within 36 hours, Brown's men had fled or been killed or captured by local pro slavery farmers, militiamen, and U.S. Marines led by Robert E. Lee. Brown's subsequent capture by federal forces seized the nation's attention, as Southerners feared it was just the first of many Northern plots to cause a slave rebellion that might endanger their lives, while Republicans dismissed the notion and said they would not interfere with slavery in the South.
Historians agree John Brown played a major role in the start of the Civil War. David Potter (1976) said the emotional effect of Brown's raid was greater than the philosophical effect of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, and that his raid revealed a deep division between North and South. Brown's actions prior to the Civil War as an abolitionist, and the tactics he chose, still make him a controversial figure today. He is sometimes memorialized as a heroic martyr and a visionary and sometimes vilified as a madman and a terrorist. Some writers, such as Bruce Olds, describe him as a monomaniacal zealot, others, such as Stephen B. Oates, regard him as "one of the most perceptive human beings of his generation." David S. Reynolds hails the man who "killed slavery, sparked the civil war, and seeded civil rights" and Richard Owen Boyer emphasizes that Brown was "an American who gave his life that millions of other Americans might be free." For Ken Chowder he is "at certain times, a great man", but also "the father of American terrorism." The song "John Brown's Body" became a Union marching song during the Civil War.

Monday, July 11, 2011


“I moved awhile this morning and then we drew in two loads of hay before dinner and bunched what I mowed this morning.  Pleasant day!”

You can buy this button and many others at my site:

In Greek mythology, a harpy ("snatcher", from Latin: harpeia, originating in Greek: ἅρπυια, harpūia) was one of the winged spirits best known for constantly stealing all food from Phineas. The literal meaning of the word seems to be "that which snatches" as it comes from the ancient Greek word harpazein (ἁρπάζειν), which means "to snatch".

A harpy was the mother by the West Wind Zephyros of the horses of Achilles. In this context Jane Ellen Harrison adduced the notion in Virgil's Georgics (iii.274) that mares became gravid by the wind alone, marvelous to say.

Hesiod calls them two "lovely-haired" creatures, and pottery art depicting the harpies featured beautiful women with wings. Harpies as ugly winged bird-women, e.g. in Aeschylus' The Eumenides (line 50) are a late development, due to a confusion with the Sirens. Roman and Byzantine writers detailed their ugliness.


Sunday, July 10, 2011

Hale Farm

“I mowed down about five loads of grass this morning and Mike Foley came and he worked in the potatoes until about 10 o’clock and then we bunched up between two and three loads mowed Saturday.  After dinner we drew in three loads that was bunched Saturday and bunched what I mowed this morning.  Took the Stowell heifer to Frank Miurro’s bull tonight.  Has been a beautiful day.”

Hale Farm & Village ( is the premier outdoor, living history museum in Northeast Ohio. For over 50 years Hale Farm & Village has provided school children, adults and families a slice of life on the Western Reserve in the backdrop of the 19th century.